Key Concepts


"Keepers" refers to active participants in the Celeste protocol. Keepers stake Honey in order to earn staking rewards and while staked they may be drafted to provide their opinion on how a dispute should be resolved.

Plurality Rule

Keepers are asked to resolve disputes not based on what they personally think the resolution should be but what they believe will be the plurality opinion when the question is resolved.

Celeste attempts to find what the subjective truth is (i.e. the most broadly acceptable resolution of a dispute) with a Schelling game. Every time a keeper is drafted for a dispute, a portion of their activated tokens are locked until the dispute is finalized. To incentivize consensus, Keepers who don’t vote along with the finalized plurality opinion have their locked tokens slashed. Keepers who vote in favor of the finalized plurality opinion are rewarded with dispute fees and HNY tokens from keepers who failed to vote, or did not vote with the plurality.

Sybil resistance

Celeste is a decentralized oracle protocol that relies on a combination of Stake-based incentives and the wisdom of the crowd to produce predictable resolutions to subjective disputes. In order to ensure that signals originating from those who have an abundance of capital do not become too dominant and overwhelm the wisdom of the crowd effect, the amount of HNY an individual can stake has been limited.

BrightID verification is required to become a Keeper and is used to ensure that it is difficult for Keepers to bypass the staking limits by creating and participating in Celeste using multiple accounts.


The Keeper community is encouraged to discuss and debate how the language used in covenants should be interpreted by referencing past disputes in order to establish a precedence history. Precedence is not binding in the Celeste protocol but is an intuitive coordination tool that helps Keepers provide a consistent and predictable service to users.

As disputes arise and are resolved, we will compile them along with Plurality and Minority opinions so that they can be easily referenced by users and keepers over time.

Prior Work

Celeste builds on the prior work of other fantastic open-source protocols, most notably Kleros and Aragon Court.

Celeste diverges from these approaches by introducing limits on how much individual keepers can stake as well as by taking a more bottom-up approach to ecosystem development through tight integration with 1Hive's Honey protocol.

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